Kia Optima: Charging System / Alternator

Kia Optima DL3 2019-2021 Service and Repair Manual / Engine Electrical System / Charging System / Alternator

Description and operation
Description

The Alternator has eight built-in diodes, each rectifying AC current to DC current.

Therefore, DC current appears at alternator "B" terminal.

In addition, the charging voltage of this alternator is regulated by the battery voltage detection system.

The alternator is regulated by the battery voltage detection system.

The main components of the alternator are the rotor, stator, rectifier, capacitor brushes, bearings and V-ribbed belt pulley.

The brush holder contains a built-in electronic voltage regulator.

1. Brush
2. General pulley
3. Rotor
4. Stator
5. Rectifier

1. Brush
2. OAP pulley
3. Rotor
4. Stator
5. Rectifier

Specifications
Specification

Item
Specification
Rated voltage
13.5V, 120A
Speed in use
1,000 - 18,000 rpm
Voltage regulator
IC Regulator built-in type
Regulator Setting Voltage
External mode
Refer to below graph
Internal mode
14.55 ± 0.3V
Temperature Gradient
External mode
0 ± 3 mV / °C 
Internal mode
-3.5 ± 2mV / °C

Components and components location
Components

1. Pully
2. Front Housing
3. Front Bearing
4. Stator
5. Rotor
6. Rear Bearing
7. Rear Housing
8. Rectifier Assembly
9. Regulator Assembly
10. Rear Cover
11. Nut


Schematic diagrams
Circuit Diagram

  

COM signal - When controlling the voltage generated, the ECM sends the target voltage data to the alternator via a PWM signal.(High voltage: 4V or higher, low voltage: 2V or lower)

FR signal - The transistor activation signal inside the alternator monitors the voltage generated by the alternator to control the excitation current before it sends the FR signal to the ECM. (At certain RPM/electric loads, the FR duty can remain static. However, more often, the RPM, electric load, target voltage, etc. are always changing in the vehicle, so the FR must also change constantly)

L signal - Turns on the battery warning lamp on the dashboard when the battery charging system malfunctions. (Conditions for turning on the lamp - overcharge, over discharge, a field coil blown inside the alternator)

B+ terminal - The output voltage from the generator travels to the battery via the B+ terminal.

Repair procedures
Removal
1.

Disconnect the negative battery (-) terminal.

2.

Remove the water pipe bracket bolts (A).

Tightening torque :

9.8 - 11.8 N.m (1.0 - 1.2 kgf.m, 7.2 - 8.7 Ib-ft)

3.

Remove the drive belt.

(Refer to Engine Mechanical System - "Drive Belt")

4.

Disconnect the alternator connector (A) and the cable nut (B) from alternator "B" terminal.

Tightening torque :

9.8 - 11.8 N.m (1.0 - 1.2 kgf.m, 7.2 - 8.7 Ib-ft)

5.

Pull out the through bolt and then remove the alternator (A).

Tightening torque :

[M10] 29.4 - 41.2 N.m (3.0 - 4.2 kgf.m, 21.7 - 30.4 Ib-ft)

[M8] 26.4 - 37.2 N.m (2.7 - 3.8 kgf.m, 19.5 - 27.4 Ib-ft)

Installation
1.

Install in the reverse order of removal.

Disassembly
1.

Loosen the nuts (B) and then remove the cover (A).

2.

Loosen the mounting bolts (A) and remove the regulator assembly (B).

3.

Remove the slip ring guide (A).

4.

Remove the OAP cap. (with OAP)

5.

Remove the alternator pulley (A) after loosening the mounting nut. (with out OAP)

6.

Loosen the bolts (A) and then remove the rear housing (B).

7.

Disconnect the rotor (A) and the housing (B).

8.

Reassembly is the reverse order of disassembly.

Reassembly
1.

Reassemble in the reverse order of disassembly.

  

When reassembling OAD pulley, replace with new OAD cap.

Inspection
[Rotor]
1.

Check that there is continuity between the slip rings (C).

2.

Check that there is no continuity between the slip rings and the rotor (B) or rotor shaft (A).

3.

If the rotor fails either continuity check, replace the alternator.

[Stator]
1.

Check that there is continuity between each pair of leads (A).

2.

Check that there is no continuity between each lead and the coil core.

3.

If the coil fails either continuity check, replace the alternator.

Charging System
Components and components location Components ① ECM ② Battery ③ Alternator ④ Starter ⑤ Instrument Cluster ⑥ Ignition switch or start/stop button ⑦ Battery s ...

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